Sunday, August 31, 2014

✿ 'Kelingai Iban' SarawaK Tattoo ✿

Our life is base to customs and culture we are trying to hold.
Since we were born on the island of Borneo's land.
Our lives backgrounds nation's culture and place, which is so great to land the title of Headhunters by rural communities with pride to us.

"Kelingai Iban" the pride of the Iban people since time immemorial.
Is a traditional art that I seek to defend, since we know "kelingai Iban"
When first used ink pot made from wells or black dust called "Ayung."

"Ayung" oil mixed with various sweeteners, which serves to enhances the wearer as well as protection to the wearer. But that's the past, now that we trying to defend is in terms of motifs derived from our ancestors, and handed down from generation to generation today.

Most carving patterns used to make 'kelingai' is intended to adorn the body indicates a warrior, which had hunting head of iban enemy and has also migrated to other places.
Divided front shoulder, 'kelingai' carving pattern that is commonly used is "Bungai Terung". It is perfect and matches in the shoulder.

At the back shoulder, 'Kelingai' carving pattern used is "pour." While in the neck is called "Rangam" in which the pattern resembles a scorpion.
Divided left and right thighs also be engraved with a pattern of 'pour' which is larger than the back of the shoulder. Divided right arm would be engraved with dragon pattern while the left arm is engraved with a floral pattern which is written the name itself or the name of a loved one.

In the calf, floral carvings and a picture of anchors and hooks will be used.

At the back are engraved with a pattern of 'Bungai Terung' that line from the shoulders to below the waist, this sculpture will be infused floral pattern which would increase the beauty of the carving.

Divided chest most people will make the mermaid pattern, while on the left chest is a pattern of dolphins.
Under carved chest will be decorated with a pattern of crabs, fish and shrimp.

According mitosnya, all carved fish, shrimp, crabs will help save them from drowning or shipwreck.
Today, carving 'kelingai' still done when someone is going to move away from home, especially if they be police or soldiers to protect them from disaster.

For Iban people kelingai, has a meaning in each motif from the grounded over their bodies, but not for anyone to be able to have a tattoo as they wanted 'kelingai iban' on their body.  Each design will bring traditional of ‘ kelingai Iban’ express purpose that can be explanation from Iban community.

Before the commencement of the 'Kelingai' they will hold the ceremony ‘Miring’ tilt prior to applying for the blessing of the gods as 'Keling Bungai Nuing, sempurai bunsu Gerai, Laja Bungai Jawa and others they come from' Panggau Libau’.

The Iban people is very respectful of their gods, other gods from Panggau Libau, the Iban people also called goddesses of the "Gelung" to protect people who will make the ‘kelingai’.  it was "Kumang, Indai Abang, Jawai, and Lulung Indai Mendung”.

When the 'Miring' ceremony was held, materials such as white rice, glutinous rice, eggs, popcorn, betel nut, betel and tobacco, these materials are available when required for ceremonial 'Miring' before embarking on a 'kelingai’.

Tattoo practice is the most important way of body jewelry among the Iban people, when look at the Iban people full body tattoo is a habit with the past.

Tattoo play which highlights the courage of a person's status in the community group Iban, Iban for men tattoo tattoo considered a finger to remember an event that happened superbly., this is so easy to remember the important events, the people of Iban in the past also tattoo on a child aged 10 or 11 to indicate a new “Lanjau” and they are ready to participate in hunting activities, the purpose of reaching the tattoo in children is as amulets and protect them from evil spirits and also makes them invincible.

In terms of motives legendary sketch is from the gods named "Keling gerasi nading bujang berani kempang, Laja merah mua ngekang  encherenang, Sempurai munti gerai, Sepatu manuk antu, Sepunggak lumpung naga and other". all of them are the gods of war who lived in ‘Libau Panggau’ where the place is beautiful and unique .

Someone who wants to make a 'kelingai' they must be prepared to endure the pain while hitting 'kelingai' equipment to reach this tattoo is a wooden handle and needle, the needle will be in the tie at the end of the wood, perseverance in producing a work that requires experience traditional tattoo motifs and also highly skilled in the art to produce a tattoo which dipped over the body, in the process of making this tattoo ‘kelingai’ will be performed on the surface of the skin with a needle that has been dipped in ink, to create tattoo designs.

For someone who has reached the tattoo can only be inextricably satisfaction in terms of fineness motif that has been produced and is able to reflect the achievement of a Success, in terms of national culture Iban tattoo sculpture reflects the truth of his favorite Iban people at the beauty of things that are around them and immortalized through sketches tattoo of body, though many cultures around the world use the tattoo as one of body décor, but this tattoo is the most unique Iban and attractive.

Over time in line with the progress of our homeland also brings changes which motivated the development of modern sculpture tattoo, many tattoo is a cultural state time, this is because trend can vary according to changes in time when the tattoo is something that continues to have loyal followers.

Tattoo or 'kelingai' in a kind of Iban people is engraving sketched on the skin or body, the origin of the dance is like a tattoo on the body is a divided into three story, the first one in terms of myth and legend in the myths and legends of the Iban people and enjoyed good 'kelinga' in their bodies because emulate ‘Burung bunsu bubut’(Owl) and ‘Burung bunsu ruai’(magpies) that both her ​​when it appears as a human ‘Bunsu burung bubut’ show cleverness carve on ‘Bunsu burung ruai’ to two adventurers "nyanggau 'and' nyantau '.

They were very impressed with the beauty of seeing the tattoo sketched by ‘Bunsu burung bubut’  on ‘Bunsu burung ruai’ body and they do it when they go back to their place .

For us as people who own tattoo traditions, and we try to keep it as long as i can, every individual who wishes to make a tattoo should know in terms of motives, the role and meaning of the tattoo, it’s very important because a tattoo is permanent and cannot be erased just like that, Most of the design and tattoo style among the dance almost the same, but has greatly expanded the size of the tattoo, tattoo styles and the most real is influenced by the area where they live, the pattern 'kelingai' most famous of Iban people is among the tattoo "Bungai  Terung" it’s will be tattooed divided both shoulders of men among the Iban people.

Second because the sky gods emulate men like tribal Iban decorate their bodies, because following shape as the sky gods such as "sengalang burung" and by "Kelingai" gods of war "Panggau Libau". 

And the third came from a man named "Gemong" Iban people have dreamed, in his dream he saw the walls and everything inside the house was decorated with carvings ‘kelingai' so beautiful, the men who stay at that longhouse have 'Kelingai' while he fun to see the beauty of the carving inside that longhouse suddenly appeared an old man named 'Gemong’ and tell the type of carving ‘Kelingai’ him.

Actually tattoo art should be viewed in terms of positive and it’s a emblem personality and not the strength or symbol to indicate Success as is often perceived by the outside world, a lack of understanding about tattoo art.

Heritage and traditional motifs 'kelingai Iban' is an art form that should be the pride of the nation and should be expanded Iban people against modernity as such Iban warriors are so great with their courage.

Monday, August 25, 2014

✿ Head Hunters Kingdom of SarawaK ✿

In the past, the Dayak were feared for their ancient tradition of headhunting practices. Among the Iban Dayaks, the origin of headhunting was believed to be meeting one of the mourning rules given by a spirit which is as follows:

The sacred jar is not to be opened except by a warrior who has managed to obtain a head, or by a man who can present a human head, which he obtained in a fight; or by a man who has returned from a sojourn in enemy country.

The war (ngayau) regulations among the Iban Dayaks are listed below:

If a war leader leads a party on an expedition, he must not allow his warriors to fight a guiltless tribe that has no quarrel with them.
If the enemy surrenders, he may not take their lives, lest his army be unsuccessful in future warfare and risk fighting empty-handed war raids (balang kayau).
The first time that a warrior takes a head or captures a prisoner, he must present the head or captive to the war leader in acknowledgement of the latter’s leadership.
If a warrior takes two heads or captives, or more, one of each must be given to the war leader; the remainder belongs to the killer or captor.
The war leader must be honest with his followers in order that in future wars he may not be defeated (alah bunoh).

There were various reasons for headhunting as listed below:

For soil fertility so Dayaks hunted fresh heads before paddy harvesting seasons after which head festival would be held in honor of the new heads.
To add supernatural strength which Dayaks believed to be centered in the soul and head of humans. Fresh heads can give magical powers for communal protection, bountiful paddy harvesting and disease curing.
To avenge revenge for murders based on “blood credit” principle unless “adat pati nyawa” (customary compensation token) is paid.
To pay dowry for marriages e.g. “derian palit mata” (eye blocking dowry) for Ibans once blood has been splashed prior to agreeing to marriage and of course, new fresh heads show prowess, bravery, ability and capability to protect his family, community and land.

For foundation of new buildings to be stronger and meaningful than the normal practice of not putting in human heads.
For protection against enemy attacks according to the principle of “attack first before being attacked”.
As a symbol of power and social status ranking where the more heads someone has, the respect and glory due to him. The war leader is called tuai serang (warleader) or raja berani (king of the brave) while kayau anak (small raid) leader is only called tuai kayau (raid leader) whereby adat tebalu (widower rule) after their death would be paid according to their ranking status in the community. For territorial expansion where some brave Dayaks intentionally migrated into new areas such as Mujah “Buah Raya” migrated from Skrang to Paku to Kanowit  while infighting among Ibans themselves in Batang Ai caused the Ulu Ai Ibans to migrate to Batang Kanyau River in Kapuas, Kalimantan and then proceeded to Katibas and later on Ulu Rajang in Sarawak. The earlier migrations from Kapuas to Batang Ai, Batang Lupar, Batang Saribas and Batang Krian rivers were also made possible by fighting the local tribes like Bukitan.

Reasons for abandoning headhunting are:

Peacemaking agreements at Tumbang Anoi, Kalimantan in 1894 and Kapit, Sarawak in 1924. Coming of Christianity with education where Dayaks are taught that headhunting or murder is against the Christian Bible teachings for whatever reasons.

Dayaks’ own realization that headhunting was more to lose than to gain.

After mass conversions to Christianity and Islam, and anti-headhunting legislation by the colonial powers was passed, the practice was banned and appeared to have disappeared. However, the headhunting began to surface again in the mid-1940s, when the Allied Powers encouraged the practice against the Japanese. It also slightly surged in the late 1960s when the Indonesian government encouraged Dayaks to purge Chinese from interior Kalimantan who were suspected of supporting communism in mainland China and also in late 90s when the Dayak started to attack Madurese emigrants in an explosion of ethnic violence.

It should be noted headhunting or human sacrifice was also practiced by other tribes such as follows:

Toraja community in Sulawesi used adat Ma’ Barata (human sacrifice) in Rambu Solo’ ritual which is still held until the arrival of the Hindi Dutch which is a custom to honor someone with a symbol of a great warrior and bravery in a war.

In Gomo, Sumatra, there were megalithic artifacts where one of them is “batu pancung” (beheading stone) on which to tie any captive or convicted criminals for beheading.

One distinction was their ritual practice of head hunting, once prevalent among tribal warriors in Nagaland and among the Naga tribes in Myanmar. They used to take the heads of enemies to take on their power.

What's Meaning of  "Ngayau"
"Ngayau" a.k.a Head Hunter.
Ngayau is one of the expedition attacks perpetrated in Tradition Traditional Tribal Dayak Iban at a time. At the start of  "Ngayau" done or started from the origin ''Mengayau'' Dayak Tribe, one of the ancestral tribe living in Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia.
The meaning of the word is meant Ngayau: An expedition of a group of people who go and attack villages or longhouses others where it is known as "Kayau Serang" the head hunt attack. And another type of attack made with a small amount of his followers and it is known as "Kayau Anak". "Kayau Anak" is an attack that is feared by all the people in days of old.
The meaning " Kayau Serang " is a large group of men gathered and assembled to make a large batch having been summoned by a chief and plans to organize an attack against the enemy where they are coming in droves from different longhouses to attack the enemy by word word order of their leader known as "Tuai Kayau " or "Tuai Serang".

The meaning "Kayau Anak" is an attack against the enemy expedition organized by a small group of people consisting of about twenty war hero who dares oppose the enemy or smaller than that. They are going to attack the enemy when the enemy was on the way to the rice fields, in the course of the river bathing, or are looking ferns in the forest, or being in the woods hunting or given.
They perform this attack without careful planning or can be said to be done by the liver spontaneous revolt against the enemy. That's why we've heard stories of people who went to the first Iban rice fields must be cared for by a group of warriors brave enough against enemy for fear they will be victims of "Kayau Anak"attack. Please read the story "Peturun Iban" in the chapter "Bangsa Seru" in which it reported the grandson of an Iban warrior named Demong, who became head of the Iban tribe in the area of ​​"Batang Paku", Betong is known by the name Belaki , has died due to "Serang Kayau" by Seru tribe when they were working rice fields in the area known as the "Tanjung Kundong", Batang Paku, Betong. Also with him was his wife dead named Beremas ( brother to a Leader Attack Iban named Uyut or better known as Besi Bedilang ). Bedilang in Iban language is the one place where the Iban smoked been decapitated heads of enemies at home a long time ago. Belaki brother in law,also killed named Kadir.
But tribes Seru who has done it successfully kayau children chased and captured by their hero named Jimbai, Umar, Jelema and Buma. The Seru were killed when they are resting while waiting for their friend to climb trees "Keranji" having fled, bringing with them a head Belaki who were beheaded. Tribes Seru has been killed in an area known as "Bukit Tampak Panas" between the continent "Batang Paku" and "Batang Rimbas".

During expedition this ngayau warriors defeated their enemies must decapitate enemies they killed as a sign of their bravery in the attack. They will also seize all enemy property they like, as they wish and also capture all the enemies that are still alive to be brought back to their hometowns so adversary will later serve as their eternal slave. There are also those who managed to defeat the enemy is capturing young princess Kayau chief enemy and serve as their wives.

The main reason they must cut off the head of his enemy and bring them back to the longhouse is a sign of courage, agility and prowess against the enemy. During expedition ngayau the last. And those who have managed to decapitate the enemy that just killed an enemy or they are known by the Dayak ancestral tribe as "Bedengah" and they are known by many as the "Bujang Berani".

The story of this Ngayau been written in a book by Bock paper in 1881 titled "The Head Hunters of Borneo" which tells the Dayak tribe is a tribe that lived on the island of Borneo is known for being a brave sacrifice their lives to the death of last wishes to get as many decapitated heads of enemies successfully conquered when they go Ngayau, which they can raise their name as being known and designated as a leader among their people. The other reason this is done is because Ngayau ended his period of mourning by the Dayak tribes during ancient times in longhouses. Prior to the expiry of the period of mourning, then all the tribes sakat people who have died will be calling all the occupants in their longhouses to meet to discuss how they 're ending the mourning period to the other, so it's far more of their historic.

Follow the traditions of Dayak tribes before they are gone it is intended to "Ngayau Anak" get the human head to end their period of mourning in the longhouses in lieu of their family members who have died that. After they managed to get the man 's head they will come back as soon as possible and when they got home run, they will be greeted with joy, which is named as "Mangka Ka Selaing" which means prayer of thanksgiving.

Upon arrival at its main entrance their longhouses, they would shout as loudly heart as a warning indicating they have reached, and it will also be rewarded by hitting the gong of the longhouse residents. Their arrival will be greeted as a hero custom welcomed war. Human head was brought back to be greeted by a female or wife warriors themselves using nyiru used as tampi by them. Or it will be welcomed to use a large ceramic plate size of her , covered with a cloth woven using Dayak tribe known as "Pua Kumbu" which is a special fabric made ​​traditionally by the Dayak tribe for a massive ceremony. It is also celebrated using the symbolic language cuss Sampi used by Dayak tribes to greet the head of the enemy.

Once the enemy's head brought into the home long did other people in the longhouse in turn bring with them the head of the enemy by means of a symbolic dance along the length of the house known as "Naku Antu Pala" until it reaches the middle of the enemy's head living center of the mourners. After the enemy's head in the living room of the new mourners mourning is terminated. Follow the traditions of ancient Dayak tribes during the period of mourning the deceased family members are not allowed to cut the hair, the longhouse residents can not hold any ritual gatherings, no visitors from other longhouses allowed to travel to their longhouses and many other taboo other marks a sad and heartbroken by the death of the last.

Done alone dealt with the funeral earlier terminated, the head of the enemy will be carried into the living room in the longhouse chief. The head of the enemy will be placed in a special place called "Bedilang Tampun", it was the place where the head of the enemy will be smoked in the longhouse. The head of the enemy will be a war hero estate sign in longhouses. Only then will the people living in the longhouse had uapacara gatherings called "Gawai Enchaboh Arong", as a token of gratitude, war hero beating victory over their enemies.

So for reasons of courage, strength, agility and sacrifice of the soul, then start Dayak tribes in ancient times and continue to take pride in doing espedisi attack "Ngayau" to avenge the death of their family member who died at the hands of the enemy without any reason that is not known. They also melakaukan "Ngayau" as to seize the inheritance of others, jostling for power to be a leader, and also to take advantage seize the property of others. So anyone who managed to beat the opponent in the expedition "Ngayau" will mendai famous, distinguished as a war hero and respected people in the area.

The man was last when he was known as a war hero after he returned from the expedition "Ngayau", then he would make a mark on his body known as body tattoo black corak bermotifkan humans, animals or plants. Tatto is known as the "Carving" or "Kelingai". They can also use a hat called "Ketapu" or "Selapok Betunjang" where the cap will be attached with a peacock feather or a hornbill. They can also use clothing made ​​from the skin of wild animals like leopard, leopards and bears are known as "Gagong". Warriors battle going expedition "Ngayau" there must be a good sign in a dream and also believes that the sound of birds that they can help their fate before they go "Ngayau." Or make great boat for espedisi concerned. In all the things they want to do will be preceded by a ceremonial "Miring", a ritual worship to the gods that they believe can help them during the attack "Ngayau" later. "Miring" must do because they believe that god or "Tua" they'll go with the attack and help them to succeed in the attack.
According to a book written by novelist named Miller in 1946 titled "Black Borneo". He's saying that all the heroes of the Dayak tribes who go "Ngayau" there has strength, agility and the extraordinary courage of ordinary people to another. And what happened to the heroes is that they have incredible power, which is not known from any cause during his battle with the enemy, even more so when they have managed to decapitate their enemies. And also by faith Dayak tribes, skulls of the slain mempunyaui lot of power that can help them in the past it if he is well cared for and respected by his owner. Human skull was also known as "Antu Pala" can be used to treat critically ill patients when a ceremonial "Gawai Burung", the ceremony of blessing the crowds to apply traditional treat patients using the power of the spirit of the term in the head . " Antu Pala " may also be used by farmers to apply it rains during the summer drought parched. And when the power is on "Antu Pala" has been exhausted or depleted, which is why its one of the causes of why they go "Ngayau" again to get the parts so that they have the legal permanent "Antu Pala" that can help them live all the time. "Antu Pala" juag can be used to keep the house or fields from destruction by wild animals if he is someone who is knowledgeable can make his power exists as required by the owner.

According to Mc Kinley book written in 1976, he asked why the Dayak tribes when they are safely back from the expedition. "Ngayau" olden days must bring back the head of the enemy who were beheaded and not bring other parts of the body as a sign of their courage sekalu a war hero. And in his opinion that the Dayak tribe felt proud when bailik of eksepidisi "Ngayau" and bring with them the head of the enemy who were killed as a sign of victory for Dayak tribes believe that the head of the enemy is the same as an enemy of the body. Because of the style of the look of a man in the head we can easily identify who the person is and also it allows them to know who murdered sakat quarter during an attack "Ngayau" it.

Expedition "Ngayau", all the heroes of Dayak Iban suiku can show courage, strength and agility when attacking their opponents, allowing them to seek the title of "Bujang Berani". Bujang Berani is also a much sought after among all the girls in the past to serve as a husband or they can also easily be accepted by the Lead Kayau, or wealthy dignitaries to be son-in-law while they look for candidates during the engagement ceremony is done. According to the stories of the ancients that "Ngayau" was started by a tribal god named Keling Iban Dayak native continent Libau Panggau Lendat In Biau Takang Isang where he won the title "Keling Gerasi Nading, Bujang Berani Kempang, Mayuh Rembang". And the act of beheading his enemies at first performed by a god named Lang Sengalang Burung when they fought against the British tribes in the ocean wilderness. But being too angry when he joined the expedition "Ngayau" suddenly Lang Sengalang Burung continue cutting all the dead who have successfully killed the enemy, and then cut the head of his which is separating the head and body, and immediately brought him all the enemy's head back to their longhouses in Gelung Batu Nakung as proof that he is a "Bujang Berani" or a real war hero.

Preparation for Head Hunters :
Before all the heroes of Dayak Tribes go " Ngayau " , all in the first longhouse residents shall notify all Iban longhouse residents living near or along rivers in the area in which they are related or good friends in pleasure or distress that's a special meeting of expeditions " Ngayau " will be held by the Kayau them .

Upon completion of all Preparatory meetings to go " Ngayau " all the people involved will work together to make war boats called All " Boat Kayau " . The boat is made ​​durables Using wood for her sais expeditions and should fit in as much as a war hero who would go on to join the war . They are also gearing up to make some weapons to fight like Iban swords called All " ilang " and " Nyabor . "

They also make a shield made ​​of light wood sereta run dry for easy Carrying while attacking the enemy . They also make a wooden blowgun " Tapang " or of type kayau durables cans so that's They kill the enemy from a distance without being noticed by the strength They release a type of arrow known as the " Laja " that was ready made from objects sharp and has digauli with Rattlesnake venom like a cobra or locust wood and rubber ipoh .

Once all the Sonny PREPARATIONS are completed and continue to hold a meeting to determine the length of time that's seuai and also to any direction They want to go " ngayau " later . A week BEFORE They go " ngayau " all the women in the Longhouse has completed all PREPARATIONS to hold persemahan to Their gods They believe that's tanah cans help the success of the attack later .

Persons seeking men would go hunt animals and fish menuba river so that's They have Sufficient food supplies for Their wives and children who live in the period during your longhouses They go to war . They also go in search of Charms and Amulets from relatives who live close to Their Success Expedition " ngayau " later ..

The day BEFORE They go to war , They will cook the rice , bamboo rice cylinder , Which would be Their food during your Provision the journey to to be attacked . The night BEFORE They go to war , They will gather at the Longhouse in the living room " Harvest Kayau " the chief war to mengadaakan uoacara semahan to god and the god They believe ur help in our cans Expedition " ngayau " later . They also will adore all the Charms and Amulets are used to fight in the ceremony .

During the ceremony the " Harvest kayau " and assisted by some healers and shamans will be Able to choose all the men who volunteered to go to join the Expedition Because They fear if he is not selected men , Sonny will be dead or in trouble during your the war later . " Harvest Kayau " Which man will also choose cans be Appointed as the chief of the guards to Their wives and children who live in long houses , abandoned during your the war later, as They are also afraid that's Their longhouses will be attacked by the other Enemies .

During semahan and cult rituals make up gods , gods that's They believe , Amulets and Charms that's They have and also other things and are believed to help tanah the success of the attack later , They will provide semahan known as " dish" in the form of The annual materials stated the following :

Seven Dishes glutinous rice ,
Seven env " Tumpe " made of rice mixed with glutinous rice ,
seven env " Rendai " of fried rice is dried up like pop corn ,
seven eggs,
a large storage tray : 
(a ) Bethel.
( b ) leaves Engkelait.
( c ) Cigarettes made ​​of palm leaves.
( d ) Chalk. 
( e ) Fruit Banana 
( f ) Tobacco 
( g ) Seventh seed rice cake made ​​of glutinous rice , black ,
6 . A plate of cakes Prison , cakes and cakes cap nets ,
7 . 3 pairs of " Keresang " which was woven bamboo baskets square as
well as some of the pieces at the top of the reed and woven like a
bowl for storing " dish" ,
They two men or female pigs ,
a " Antu Pala " of human that's Skulls were beheaded When They defeated the enemy in the Expedition " ngayau "
Which is a drinking water Toddy made ​​with yeast and glutinous rice ,
A huge coconut ,
that's piece of cloth is used as a flag to go to war " ngayau . "

In That night all the men who were selected to participate in the Expedition " ngayau " will be asked to sit together in the living room " Lead Kayau " and going to dinner together . After the ceremony make worship " dish" of seven Dishes ready , then " Lead Kayau " will choose a designated person to make use of the cult 's mantra of the " Saucer " with swung the chicken above " plate " is .

Chickens that's have been used in rituals of the cult will swing over the heads of all the men who were selected to participate in the Expedition " ngayau " at least three times each , and Successful berdoakan They will be in the attack , healthy and protected from future disasters along the way . " Harvest Kayau " ai threw his Toddy received solely for For further gods by seven times , for praying for god and god will protect ur phone from any kind of trouble and success of the Expedition " ngayau " later .

The meaning of the rice in the packet of " dish" is praying for all the heroes of the Expedition will unite and work together Successfully " Ngayau " later . And also Their meaning and use ai Toddy the drink during your Ceremony " Tilt " is to Prevent Them getting all the heroes of that goes " Ngayau " is energetic and willing to fight tooth and nail against the enemy . Meaning Sonny " Italic " Uses " Tumpe " is his loyal imagine meditating to the " Harvest Kayau " in the attack . Meaning They Sow " Rendai " is to imply that's the gods Dayak Tribes from the continent will come Panggau Libau ur help in the attack . And also the meaning of cigarettes made ​​from palm leaves , betel , and materials " dish" the rest will be Stored in Different five parts , and Stored in the " Keresang " and Placed ditiang sri (play) Longhouse or Placed Them ditiang ' Ranyai " the tree is Placed in the middle of the Longhouse the coop it will be Placed under the tree all the Charms and Amulets to fight to the gods and god kept ur coming from Libau Panggau continent through incantation called All the shamans or shamans during your Ceremony " Italic " The Learned later that's people in the longhouses and their presence needs help Immediately .

Mini Info about Ibans :
- formerly known as Sea Dayaks.
- 30% of Sarawak's populations Iban.
- Population 600,00 ( Sarawak only )
- In ancient times they were a strong warring tribe.
- They were branded the pioneers of headhunting.

Sunday, August 24, 2014

✿ Kingdom of SarawaK ✿

Sarawak The Land of Head Hunters.
It is also a country that is divided into regions and most of Southeast Asia's longest river, the largest flower in the world, and the largest butterfly in the world. The largest cave in the world's oldest tropical rainforest, and the first person appeared in southeast Asia can be found in Sarawak. Sarawak has shown unique and distinctive.

Tourist areas in Sarawak consists of natural areas and cultural centers such as the Sarawak Cultural Village. Natural areas that are popular among tourists as well as Overseas located in the Kuching include Wind Cave and Cave of Pari, Ranchan Park, Wildlife Park Matang and Semenggoh Orang Utan Conservation Center.

Dayak People;
Dayak the native people of Borneo. It is a loose term for over 200 riverine and hill-dwelling ethnic subgroups, located principally in the interior of Borneo, each with its own dialect, customs, laws, territory and culture, although common distinguishing traits are readily identifiable. Dayak languages are categorized as part of the Austronesian languages in Asia. The Dayak were animist in belief; however many converted to Christianity, and some to Islam more recently. Estimates for the Dayak population range from 18 to 20 million. Dayak people are divided into some sub-ethnics that have different language and even different way of living. Shortly, Dayak is referred to Ngaju People or Ot Danum tribe who stays in South Borneo. While, in general, Dayak is referred to the 6 tribes of Dayak; [Kenyah-Kayan-Bahau],[Ot Danum],[Iban],[Murut],[Kalimantan] and [Punan]. Those six clusters were subdivided into approximately 405 sub-clusters. Although divided into hundreds of sub-clusters, Dayak groups have similar cultural traits in particular ways. These characteristics become the deciding factor if a sub-tribe in Borneo which can be incorporated into the group of Dayak.
Dates back to the history, in the year 1977-1978, the Asian continent and the island of Borneo, which is part of the archipelago are still together, allowing the Mongoloid races of the Asian mainland to wander through and up through the mountains of Borneo to the mountains which is now called “Muller-Schwaner mountain. Dayak people was true the Borneo indigenous. However, after the Malays from Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula came, they increasingly retreated back inside. Moreovheer, arrival of the Bugis, Makasar, and the Javanese in time of Majapahit Empire. Dayak people was living scattered throughout the territory of Kalimantan in the span of time, they have spread through the rivers to downstream and then inhabit the coast of Borneo island.
It was analyzed that Dayak people had to build an empire. In the oral tradition of Dayaks, often called “Nansarunai Uak Jawa” which means, A kingdom of Dayak Nansarunai was destroyed by Majapahit. This was occurring between the years 1309-1389. The incident resulted the Dayaks get insurgency and dispersed, some of them was get into the hinterland. The next big flows occur when the influenced of Islam that originated from the kingdom of Dayak, with the influx of traders Melayu around 1608.
In the past the Dayak people were the tribe who practicing the ancient tradition of headhunting. After conversion to Islam or Christianity and anti-headhunting legislation by the colonial powers, the practice was banned and disappeared. Nevertheless, some said that Dayak people practicing cannibalism only when the war is occur and their life is in danger. In other word, practicing cannibalism is not the term of the way of living or part of the culture, but it is just the consequences that Dayak people have for someone’s disturbance within their groups.
Dayak people have various types of weapons which commonly used for hunting and war in ancient time, or for everyday use such as in the fields. For example blowpipe (sipet), saber, lonjo (spear), shield (telawang), and spurs. Originally, the main icon from Dayak weapon is Sumpitan, not Mandau. Mandau was being used to cut the enemies head in ancient time, when the war was occur. While sumpitan is still exist until present time, and there is no antidote from the poison in sumpitan. Sumpitan is such a bamboo wooden stick along the 1.9 meters to 2.1 meters. Sumpitan should be made of hard wood such as ironwood, tampang, lanan, berangbungkan, rasak, or plepek wood.
More about Dayak people, they also use tattoo in their culture. Tattoo for Dayak people is referred to religion, social status in society, as well as the appreciation for a person. Therefore, the tattoo cannot be made arbitrarily. There are certain rules in making a tattoo or Parung, good selection of pictures, the social structure of the tattooed and the tattoo placement. The belief that the meaning of making tattoo is used to be a torch when the death occurs. The more they have tattoo, the more they are lighten when they die. Still, making a tattoo cannot be made as much in vain, because it must comply with customs rules.
The main religion of Dayak people in ancient time was Kaharingan, such as animism but similar to Hindu in present time. Over the last two centuries, some Dayaks converted to Islam, abandoning certain cultural rites and practices. Christianity was introduced by European missionaries in Borneo. Religious differences between Muslim and Christian natives of Borneo has led, at various times, to communal tensions.
For everyday living, Dayak people nowadays are depended their life in agricultural things like planting the rice field, planting bananas or palm oil. Following the modernity that came up nowadays, Dayak people are more to be a modern society, bust still hold the heritage to be the real Dayak.

The main ethnic groups of Dayaks are the Bakumpai and Dayak Bukit of South Kalimantan, The Ngajus, Baritos, Benuaqs of East Kalimantan, the Kayan and Kenyah groups and their sub-tribes in Central Borneo and the Ibans, Embaloh (Maloh), Kayan, Kenyah, Penan, Kelabit, Lun Bawang and Taman populations in the Kapuas and Sarawak regions. Other populations include the Ahe, Jagoi, Selakau, Bidayuh, and Kutai.
The Dayak people of Borneo possess an indigenous account of their history, partly in writing in papan turai (wooden records), partly in common cultural customary practices and partly in oral literature. In addition, colonial accounts and reports of Dayak activity in Borneo detail carefully-cultivated economic and political relationships with other communities as well as an ample body of research and study considering historical Dayak migrations. In particular, the Iban or the Sea Dayak exploits in the South China Seas are documented, owing to their ferocity and aggressive culture of war against sea dwelling groups and emerging Western trade interests in the 19th and 20th centuries.
In 1838 James Brooke, a British adventurer with an inheritance and an armed sloop arrived to find the Brunei Sultanate fending off rebellion from war like inland tribes. Sarawak was in chaos, Brooke put down the rebellion and as a reward signed a treaty in 1841 was bestowed the title Governor and granted power over parts of Sarawak. He pacified the natives, suppressed headhunting, eliminated the much-feared Borneo pirates, bringing ever growing tracts of Borneo under their control. In Sarawak, the most famous Iban enemy of the Brooke was Libau “Rentap” who was only defeated at Sadok Hill after three expeditions by the Brooke who was helped by some Dayaks themselves and thus, the Brooke famously said “Only Dayaks can kill Dayaks”. Shariff Mashor was another enemy to the Brooke who was a Melanau from Mukah.
During World War II, the Japanese occupied Borneo and treated all of the indigenous peoples poorly – massacres of the Malay and Dayak peoples were common, especially among the Dayaks of the Kapit Division. Following this treatment, the Dayaks formed a special force to assist the Allied forces. Eleven United States airmen and a few dozen Australian special operatives trained a thousand Dayaks from the Kapit Division to battle the Japanese with guerrilla warfare. This army of tribesmen killed or captured some 1,500 Japanese soldiers and were able to provide the Allies with intelligence vital in securing Japanese-held oil fields.
Coastal populations in Borneo are largely Muslim in belief, however these groups (Tidung, Bulungan, Paser, Melanau, Kadayan, Bakumpai, Bisayah) are generally considered to be Islamized Dayaks, native to Borneo, and heavily influenced by the Javanese Majapahit Kingdoms and Islamic Malay Sultanates.
Other groups in coastal areas of Sabah, Sarawak and northern Kalimantan; namely the Illanun, Tausug, Sama and Bajau, although inhabiting and (in the case of the Tausug group) ruling, the northern tip of Borneo for centuries, have their origins from the southern Philippines. These groups are not Dayak, but instead are grouped under the separate umbrella term of Moro.

The term ” Dayak ” most commonly used to refer to the native non – Muslim , non – Malay who live on the island. This is especially true in Malaysia , because in Indonesia there Dayak tribes are Muslim but still Dayak category although some of them referred to the tribe Banjar and Kutai tribe . There are various explanations about the etymology of this term. According to Lindblad , Dayak word is derived from the power of the Kenyah language , which means upstream or inland . King , further speculate that the Dayak may also be derived from the word “aja” , a Malay word meaning native or indigenous . He also believes that the word is probably derived from a term of Central Java language that means behavior that is not appropriate or is not in place.
The term for the native tribes near Sambas and Pontianak is Power ( Kanayatn : the power = the landline ) , whereas in Banjarmasin called Biaju ( bi = from ; aju = upstream ). Thus the original term Power ( the landline ) intended to native of West Kalimantan which clumps hereinafter called Dayak Bidayuh Land Dayak are distinguished by the Sea ( clumps Iban ) . In Banjarmasin , the term Dayak started to be used in agreement with the Sultan of Banjar Dutch East Indies in 1826 , to replace the term Biaju Large ( Kahayan river area ) and Small Biaju ( Moody Kapuas river region ) , each of which was changed to Dayak Dayak Large and Small . Since then the term Dayak is also intended to Ngaju – Ot Danum clump or clumps Barito . Furthermore, the term ” Dayak ” is used to refer collectively extends to the native tribes of different local languages, especially the non – Malays or non- Muslims. At the end of the 19th century ( after the Peace tumbles Anoi ) term used in the context of population Dayak colonial rulers who took over the sovereignty of the tribes living in the hinterlands of Borneo.  According to the Ministry of Education and Culture Project Assessment and Development Section Cultural Values ​​in East Kalimantan , Dr . Kaderland August , a Dutch scientist , was the first person to use the term Dayak in the definition above in 1895 .
The meaning of the word ‘ Dayak ‘ itself is debatable . Commans ( 1987) , for example , writes that according to some authors , ‘ Dayak ‘ means man , while other authors stated that the word means inland . Commans said that the most proper sense is people living in the river upstream. In a similar name , Lahajir et al  reported that people use the term Dayak Iban with a human sense , while people Benuaq Alas and interpret it as upstream. They also stated that some people claim that the term Dayak refers to certain personal characteristics that are recognized by the people of Borneo , which is strong , manly , brave and tenacious . Lahajir et al  noted that there are at least four terms to the original penuduk Borneo in the literature , namely Power ‘ , Dyak , Power , and Dayak . The natives themselves are generally not familiar with these terms , but the people outside of the scope they are referred to them as ‘ Dayak ‘.

Sub-Ethnic Division;
Due to the strong migration of settlers, who still retain Dayak indigenous culture ultimately chose to go into the interior. As a result, the Dayak became scattered and become its own sub-sub-ethnic. Dayak groups, divided into sub-sub-tribe numbers approximately 405 sub (by JU Lontaan, 1975). Each sub tribe Dayak in Borneo have customs and cultures are similar, refer to the sociology of community service and differences in customs, culture, or language typical. Past society now called Dayak, inhabit coastal areas and rivers in each of their settlements. Dayaks of Borneo by an anthropology JU Lontaan, 1975 in book Customary Law and Customs of West Kalimantan, consisting of six major tribes and 405 sub-tribes are small, which is spread across Borneo.
In general, most people in the archipelago is the speakers. Currently the dominant theory is proposed linguists such as Peter Bellwood and Blust , namely that the place of origin is Taiwan’s Austronesian languages ​​. Around 4000 years ago , a group of Austronesian people began migrating to the Philippines . Approximately 500 years later, no group has begun to migrate south to the islands of Indonesia now , and to the east towards the Pacific .

But this is not the Austronesian sourdough Borneo island . Between 60 000 and 70 000 years ago , when sea levels 120 or 150 meters lower than today and the Indonesian island of land ( geologists call this land ” Sunda ” ) , humans had migrated from Asia to the south and had reached the Australian continent who was not too far away from mainland Asia .
From the mountains that come across the great rivers of Borneo. It is estimated that, in the long span of time , they have to spread tracing rivers to downstream and then inhabit the coast of the island of Borneo.  It turned Tahtum tells migration of local Dayak Ngaju perhuluan rivers heading downstream rivers .
In the southern area of ​​the Dayak Kalimantan never build an empire. In the oral tradition of the Dayak in the area often referred to Usak Nansarunai Java, namely the kingdom of Dayak Maanyan Nansarunai destroyed by the Majapahit , which is expected to occur between the years 1309 to 1389.  The incident resulted Dayak Maanyan urgency and scattered, partly into the hinterland to the area of the Dayak tribe Lawangan . The next big flow occurs during the Islamic influence came from the kingdom of Demak with the entry of Malay traders (circa 1520 ).
Most of the Dayak tribes in the south and east Kalimantan who embraced Islam out of the Dayak tribe and no longer recognizes him as the Dayaks , but refer to themselves as a tribe or people of Banjar and Kutai . While the Dayak people who reject Islam back down the river , into the interior , live in areas of Tangi Wood , Amuntai , Margasari , Watang Amandit , Labuan Amas and Watang Balangan . Some are kept pressed for entering the jungle . Muslims Dayaks are mostly located in the South and most Kotawaringin , one of the leaders of the famous Hindu Banjar is Gastric Mangkurat according to Dayak is a Dayak ( Ma’anyan or Ot Danum ). In East Kalimantan , the Tribe Tonyoy – Benuaq who embraced Islam calls itself a tribe Kutai. Not only of the archipelago, other nations also came to Borneo . Chinese people began to come to Kalimantan recorded during the Ming dynasty recorded in Book 323 History of the Ming Dynasty ( 1368-1643 ) . Hanzi lettered manuscript mentioned that the city was first visited Banjarmasin and mentioned that a bloody Prince Sultan Hidayatullah Biaju be a substitute for the first. The visit at the time of Sultan Hidayatullah I and his successor, Sultan Mustain Billah . Hikayat Banjar preach visit but not settled by Chinese traders and European nations jung ( called Walanda ) in South Kalimantan has occurred in the Hindu kingdom of Banjar ( XIV century ). Chinese merchants began to settle in the city of Banjarmasin at a place near the beach in 1736.
The arrival of the Chinese in southern Borneo Dayak population does not lead to the displacement and does not have a direct effect because they only trade , especially with the kingdom of Banjar Banjarmasin . They do not directly trade with the Dayaks . Remains of the Chinese nation was saved by some Dayak tribes like malawen plates, pots ( jars ) and ceramic equipment .
Since the beginning of the fifth century the Chinese nation has reached Borneo. In the fifteenth century Yongle Emperor sent a large army to the south ( including the archipelago ) under the leadership of Zheng He , and returned to China in 1407 , having previously stopped to Java , Borneo , Malacca , Manila and Solok . In 1750, Sultan Mempawah accept Chinese people (from Brunei) who were looking for gold . Chinese people are also carrying merchandise including opium, silk, glassware such as plates , cups , bowls and jars.

Traditionally, Dayak agriculture was based on widen rice cultivation. Agricultural Land in this sense was used and defined primarily in terms of hill rice farming, ladang (garden), and hutan (forest). Dayaks organized their labour in terms of traditionally based land holding groups which determined who owned rights to land and how it was to be used. The “green revolution” in the 1950s, spurred on the planting of new varieties of wetland rice amongst Dayak tribes.
The main dependence on subsistence and mid-scale agriculture by the Dayak has made this group active in this industry. The modern day rise in large scale monocarp plantations such as palm oil and bananas, proposed for vast swathes of Dayak land held under customary rights, titles and claims in Indonesia, threaten the local political landscape in various regions in Borneo.
Further problems continue to arise in part due to the shaping of the modern Malaysian and Indonesian nation-states on post-colonial political systems and laws on land tenure. The conflict between the state and the Dayak natives on land laws and native customary rights will continue as long as the colonial model on land tenure is used against local customary law. The main precept of land use, in local customary law, is that cultivated land is owned and held in right by the native owners, and the concept of land ownership flows out of this central belief. This understanding of custom is based on the idea that land is used and held under native domain. Invariably, when colonial rule was first felt in the Kalimantan Kingdoms, conflict over the subjugation of territory erupted several times between the Dayaks and the respective authorities.

The Dayak indigenous religion has been given the name Kaharingan, and may be said to be a form of animism. For official purposes, it is categorized as a form of Christian in Indonesia. Nevertheless, these generalizations fail to convey the distinctiveness, meaningfulness, richness and depth of Dayak religion, myth and teachings.
Underlying the world-view is an account of the creation and re-creation of this middle-earth where the Dayak dwell, arising out of a cosmic battle in the beginning of time between a primal couple, a male and female bird/dragon (serpent). Representations of this primal couple are amongst the most pervasive motifs of Dayak art. The primal mythic conflict ended in a mutual, procreative murder, from the body parts of which the present universe arose stage by stage. This primal sacrificial creation of the universe in all its levels is the paradigm for, and is re-experienced and ultimately harmoniously brought together (according to Dayak beliefs) in the seasons of the year, the interdependence of river (up-stream and down-stream) and land, the tilling of the earth and fall of the rain, the union of male and female, the distinctions between and cooperation of social classes, the wars and trade with foreigners, indeed in all aspects of life, even including tattoos on the body, the lay-out of dwellings and the annual cycle of renewal ceremonies, funeral rites, etc.
The Iban Dayak religion can be simply referred to as the Iban religion which has been written by Benedict Sandin and others extensively. It is characterized by a supreme being in the name of Bunsu (Kree) Petara who has no parents and creates everything in this world and other worlds. Under Bunsu Petara are the seven gods whose names are: Sengalang Burong as the god of war and healing, Biku Bunsu Petara as the high priest and second in command, Menjaya as the first shaman (manang) and god of medicine, Selampandai as the god of creation, Sempulang Gana as the god of agriculture and land along with Semarugah, Ini Inda/Inee/Andan as the naturally-born doctor and god of justice and Anda Mara as the god of wealth.
The praying and propitiation to certain gods are held via four main categories of rituals and festivals (gawai). The first category is the agricultural-related festivals which are dedicated to paddy farming to honour Sempulang Gana and include Gawai Batu (Whetstone Festival), Gawai Ngalihka Tanah (Soil Reactivation Festival), Gawai Benih (Padi Seed Festival), Gawai Ngemali Umai (Farm Curing Festival), Gawai Matah (Harvest Initiation Festival) and Gawai Bersimpan (Paddy Storing Festival). The second category is the headhunting-related festivals to honour Sengalang Burong comprises Gawai Burung (Bird Festival) and Gawai Kenyalang (Hornbill Festival) which are held after other smaller rituals like bedara matak (first offering inside the family room), bedara mansau (second-in-scale offering inside the family room), sandau ari (mid-day celebration) and enchaboh arong (head-welcoming ceremony) are performed. The third category is the sickness-healing festivals to ask for curing from Menjaya or Ini Andan such as Gawai Sakit (Sickness Festival) which is held after other smaller attempts have failed to cure the sicked persons such as begama (touching), belian (various manang rituals), Besugi Sakit (to ask Keling for curing via magical power) and Berenong Sakit (to ask for curing by Sengalang Burong) in the ascending order. Gawai Burung can also be used for healing certain difficult-to-cure sickness via magical power by Sengalang Burong especially nowadays after headhunting has been stopped. Two more festivals that are related to wellness and longevity are Gawai Betambah Bulu (Hair Adding Festival) and Gawai Nanga Langit (Sky Staircasing Festival). The fourth category is the fortune-related festivals which consist of Gawai Pangkong Tiang (Post Banging Festival) after trasfering to a new longhouse, Gawai Tuah (Luck Festival) with three ascending stages to seek and to welcome lucks and Gawai Tajau (Jar Festival) to welcome newly acquired jars. The fifth category is the Soul Festival (Gawai Antu) for the souls of the deads. The seven and last category is the Gawai Mimpi (Dream Festival) which is held for any dreams experienced during sleep where good meaning dreams are purposely sought.
At the end of these festivals except Gawai Antu, the divination of the pig liver will be interpreted to forecast the outcome of the future or the luck of the individual who holds the festival.
The Iban Dayaks have several methods to receive omens where good omens are purposely sought. The first method is via dream to receive charms, amulets (pengaroh, empelias. engkerabun) or medicine (obat) and curse (sumpah) from any gods, people of Panggau Libau and Gelong and any spirits or ghosts. The second method is via animal omens (burong laba) which have long lasting effects such as from deer barking which is quite random in nature. The third method is via bird omens (burong bisa) which have short term effects that are commonly limited to a certain farming year or a certain activity at hands. The forth method is via pig liver divination after festival celebration The fifth but not the least method is via nampok or betapa (self-imposed isolation) to receive amulet, curse, medicine or healing.
There are seven omen birds under the charge of their chief Sengalang Burong at their longhouse named Tansang Kenyalang (Hornbill Abode), which are Ketupong (Jaloh or Kikeh) (Rufous Piculet) as the first in command, Beragai (Scarlet-rumped trogon), Pangkas (Maroon Woodpecker) on the righthand side of Sengalang Burong’s family room while Bejampong as the second in command, Embuas (Banded Kingfisher), Kelabu Papau (Senabong) (Diard’s Trogon) and Nendak (White-rumped shama) on the lefthand side. The calls and flights of the omen birds along with the circumstances and social status of the listeners are considered during the omen interpretations.
The prayers to gods and/or other spirits are made by giving offerings (“piring”) and animal sacrifices (“genselan”). The number (leka or turun) of each piring offering item is based on ascending odd numbers which have meanings and purposes as below:
piring 3 for piring ampun (forgiveness seeking) or seluwak (wastefulness spirit)
piring 5 for piring minta (reguest offering) or bejalai (journey)
piring 7 for piring begawai (festival) or bujang berani (brave warrior)
piring 9 for sangkong (including others) or turu (leftover included)
Piring contains offering of various traditional foods and drinks while genselan is made by sacrificing chickens and/or pigs. Bedara is commonly held for any general purposes before holding any festivals.
Any Iban Dayak will undergo some forms of simple rituals and several elaborate festivals as necessary in their lifetime from a baby, adolescent to adulthood. The longhouse where the Iban Dayaks stay is constructed in a unique way for both living or accommodation purposes and ritual or religious practices.
The shaman (manang) of the Iban Dayaks have various types of pelian (ritual healing ceremony) to be held in accordance with the types of sickness determined by him through his glassy stone to see the whereabouts of the soul of the sick person.

The best and still unsurpassed study of a traditional Dayak religion in Kalimantan is that of Hans Scharer, Ngaju Religion: The Conception of God among a South Borneo People; translated by Rodney Needham (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1963). The practice of Kaharingan differs from group to group, but shamans, specialists in ecstatic flight to other spheres, are central to Dayak religion, and serve to bring together the various realms of Heaven (Upper-world) and earth, and even Under-world, for example healing the sick by retrieving their souls which are journeying on their way to the Upper-world land of the dead, accompanying and protecting the soul of a dead person on the way to their proper place in the Upper-world, presiding over annual renewal and agricultural regeneration festivals, etc. Death rituals are most elaborate when a noble (kamang) dies. On particular religious occasions, the spirit is believed to descend to partake in celebration, a mark of honor and respect to past ancestors and blessings for a prosperous future.
Over the last two centuries, some Dayaks converted to Christianity and Islam, abandoning certain cultural rites and practices. Christianity was introduced by European missionaries in Borneo. Religious differences between Muslim and Christian natives of Borneo has led, at various times, to communal tensions. Relations, however between all religious groups are generally good.
Muslim Dayaks have however retained their original identity and kept various customary practices consistent with their religion. However many Christian Dayak has changed their name to European or English name but some minority still maintain their ancestors traditional name.
An example of common identity, over and above religious belief, is the Melanau group. Despite the small population, to the casual observer, the coastal dwelling Melanau of Sarawak, generally do not identify with one religion, as a number of them have Islamized and Christianised over a period of time. A few practise a distinct Dayak form of Kaharingan, known as Liko. Liko is the earliest surviving form of religious belief for the Melanau, predating the arrival of Islam and Christianity to Sarawak. The somewhat patchy religious divisions remain, however the common identity of the Melanau is held politically and socially. Social cohesion amongst the Melanau, despite religious differences, is markedly tight within their small community.
Despite the destruction of pagan religions in Europe by Christians, most of the people who try to conserve the Dayaks’ religion are missionaries. For example Reverend William Howell contributed numerous articles on the Iban language, lore and culture between 1909-1910 to the Sarawak Gazette. The articles were later compiled in a book in 1963 entitled, The Sea Dayaks and Other Races of Sarawak.

Kinship in Dayak society is traced in both lines of genealogy (tusut). Although, in Dayak Iban society, men and women possess equal rights in status and property ownership, political office has strictly been the occupation of the traditional Iban patriarch. There is a council of elders in each longhouse.
Overall, Dayak leadership in any given region, is marked by titles, a Penghulu for instance would have invested authority on behalf of a network of Tuai Rumah’s and so on to a Pemancha, Pengarah to Temenggung in the ascending order while Panglima or Orang Kaya (Rekaya) are tittles given by Malays to some Dayaks.
Individual Dayak groups have their social and hierarchy systems defined internally, and these differ widely from Ibans to Ngajus and Benuaqs to Kayans.
In Sarawak, Temenggong Koh Anak Jubang was the first paramount chief of Dayaks in Sarawak and followed by Tun Temenggong Jugah Anak Barieng who was one of the main signatories for the formation of Federation of Malaysia between Malaya, Singapore, Sabah and Sarawak with Singapore expelled later on. He was said to be the “bridge between Malaya and East Malaysia”. The latter was fondly called “Apai” by others, which means father. Unfortunately, he had no western or formal education at all.
The most salient feature of Dayak social organisation is the practice of Longhouse domicile. This is a structure supported by hardwood posts that can be hundreds of metres long, usually located along a terraced river bank. At one side is a long communal platform, from which the individual households can be reached.
The Iban of the Kapuas and Sarawak have organized their Longhouse settlements in response to their migratory patterns. Iban longhouses vary in size, from those slightly over 100 metres in length to large settlements over 500 metres in length. Longhouses have a door and apartment for every family living in the longhouse. For example, a longhouse of 200 doors is equivalent to a settlement of 200 families.
The tuai rumah (long house chief) can be aided by a tuai burong (bird leader), tuai umai (farming leader) and a manang (shaman). Nowadays, each long house will have a Security and Development Committee and ad hoc committee will be formed as and when necessary for example during festivals such as Gawai Dayak.
The Dayaks are peace loving people who live based on customary rules or adat asal which govern each of their main activities. The adat is administered by the tuai rumah aided by the Council of Elders in the longhouse so that any dispute can be settled amicably among the dwellers themselves via berandau (discussion). If no settlement can be reached at the longhouse chief level, then the dispute will escalate to a pengulu level and so on.

Among the main sections of customary adat of the Iban Dayaks are as follows:
Adat berumah (House building rule)
Adat melah pinang, butang ngau sarak (Marriage, adultery and divorce rule)
Adat beranak (Child bearing and raising rule)
Adat bumai and beguna tanah (Agricultural and land use rule)
Adat ngayau (Headhunting rule)
Adat ngasu, berikan, ngembuah and napang (Hunting, fishing, fruit and honey collection rule)
Adat tebalu, ngetas ulit ngau beserarak bungai(Widow/widower, mourning and soul separation rule)
Adat begawai (festival rule)
Adat idup di rumah panjai (Order of life in the longhouse rule)
Adat betenun, main lama, kajat ngau taboh (Weaving, past times, dance and music rule)
Adat beburong, bemimpi ngau becenaga ati babi (Bird and animal omen, dream and pig liver rule)
Adat belelang (Journey rule).
The Dayak life centres on the paddy planting activity every year. The Iban Dayak has their own yearlong calendar with 12 consecutive months which are one month later than the Roman calender. The months are named in accordance to the paddy farming activities and the activities in between. Other than paddy, also planted in the farm are vegetables like ensabi, pumpkin, round brinjal, cucumber, corn, lingkau and other food sources lik tapioca, sugarcane, sweet potatoes and finally after the paddy has been harvested, cotton is planted which takes about two months to complete its cycle. The cotton is used for weaving before commercial cotton is traded. Fresh lands cleared by each Dayak family will belong to that family and the longhouse community can also use the land with permission from the owning family. Usually, in one riverine system, a special track of land is reserved for the use by the community itself to get natural supplies of wood, rattan and other wild plants which are necessary for building houses, boats, coffins and other living purposes, and also to leave living space for wild animals which is a source of meat. Beside farming, Dayaks plant fruit trees like rambutan, langsat, durian, isu and mangosteen near their longhouse or on their land plots to amrk their ownership of the land. They also grow plants which produce dyes for colouring their cotton treads if not taken from the wild forest. Major fishing using the tuba root is normally done by the whole longhouse as the river may take sometimes to recover. Any wild meat obtained will distribute according to a certain customary law.
Headhunting was an important part of Dayak culture, in particular to the Iban and Kenyah. The origin of headhunting in Iban Dayaks can be traced to the story of a chief name Serapoh who was asked by a spirit to obtain a fresh head to open a mourning jar but unfortunately he killed a Kantu boy which he got by exchanging with a jar for this purpose for which the Kantu retaliated and thus starting the headhunting practice.[13] There used to be a tradition of retaliation for old headhunts, which kept the practice alive. External interference by the reign of the Brooke Rajahs in Sarawak via “bebanchak babi” (peacemaking) in Kapit and the Dutch in Kalimantan Borneo via peacemaking at Tumbang Anoi curtailed and limited this tradition.
Apart from massed raids, the practice of headhunting was then limited to individual retaliation attacks or the result of chance encounters. Early Brooke Government reports describe Dayak Iban and Kenyah War parties with captured enemy heads. At various times, there have been massive coordinated raids in the interior and throughout coastal Borneo before and after the arrival of the Raj during Brooke’s reign in Sarawak.
The Ibans’ journey along the coastal regions using a large boat called “bandong” with sail made of leaves or cloths may have given rise to the term, Sea Dayak, although, throughout the 19th Century, Sarawak Government raids and independent expeditions appeared to have been carried out as far as Brunei, Mindanao, East coast Malaya, Jawa and Celebes.
Tandem diplomatic relations between the Sarawak Government (Brooke Rajah) and Britain (East India Company and the Royal Navy) acted as a pivot and a deterrence to the former territorial ambitions, against the Dutch administration in the Kalimantan regions and client sultanates.
In the Indonesian region, toplessness was the norm among the Dayak people, Javanese, and the Balinese people of Indonesia before the introduction of Islam and contact with Western cultures. In Javanese and Balinese societies, women worked or rested comfortably topless. Among the Dayak, only big breasted women or married women with sagging breasts cover their breasts because they interfered with their work. Once marik empang (top cover over the shoulders) and later shirts are available, toplessness has been abandoned.
Metal-working is elaborately developed in making mandaus (machetes – parang in Malay and Indonesian). The blade is made of a softer iron, to prevent breakage, with a narrow strip of a harder iron wedged into a slot in the cutting edge for sharpness in a process called ngamboh (iron-smithing).
In headhunting it was necessary to able to draw the parang quickly. For this purpose, the mandau is fairly short, which also better serves the purpose of trailcutting in dense forest. It is holstered with the cutting edge facing upwards and at that side there is an upward protrusion on the handle, so it can be drawn very quickly with the side of the hand without having to reach over and grasp the handle first. The hand can then grasp the handle while it is being drawn. The combination of these three factors (short, cutting edge up and protrusion) makes for an extremely fast drawing-action.
The ceremonial mandaus used for dances are as beautifully adorned with feathers, as are the costumes. There are various terms to describe different types of Dayak blades. The Nyabor is the traditional Iban Scimitar, Parang Ilang is common to Kayan and Kenyah Swordsmiths, pedang is a sword with a metallic handle and Duku is a multipurpose farm tool and machete of sorts.
Normally, the sword is accompanied by a wooden shield called terabai which is decorated with a demon face to scare off the enemy. Another weapons are sangkoh (spear) and sumpit (blowpipe) with lethal poison at the tip of its laja. To protect the upper body during combat, a gagong (armour) which is made of animal hard skin such as leopards is worn over the shoulders via a hole made for the head to enter.
Dayaks normally build their longhouses on high posts on high ground where possible for protection. They also may build kuta (fencing) and kubau (fort) where necessary to defend against enemy attacks. Dayaks also possess some brass and cast iron weaponry such as brass cannon (bedil) and iron cast cannon meriam. Furthermore, Dayaks are experienced in setting up animal traps (peti) which can be used for attacking enemy as well. The agility and stamina of Dayaks in jungles give them advantages. However, at the end, Dayaks were defeated by handguns and disunity among themselves against the colonialists.
Most importantly, Dayaks will seek divine helps to grant them protection in the forms of good dreams or curses by spirits, charms such as pengaroh (normally ponsonous), empelias (weapon straying away) and engkerabun (hidden from normal human eyes), animal omens, bird omens, good divination in the pig liver or by purposely seeking supernatural powers via nampok or betapa or menuntut ilmu (learning knowledge) especially kebal (weapon-proof).[39] During headhunting days, those going to farms will be protected by warriors themselves and big agriculture is also carried out via labour exchange called bedurok (which means a large number of people working together) until completion of the agricultural activity. Kalingai or pantang (tattoo) is made unto bodies to protect from dangers and other signifying purposes such as traveling to certain places.
The traditional Iban Dayak male attire consists of a sirat (loincloth) attached with a small mat for sitting), lelanjang (headgear with colourful bird feathers) or a turban (a long piece of cloth wrapped around the head), marik (chain) around the neck, engkerimok (ring on thigh) and simpai (ring on the upper arms). The Iban Dayak female traditional attire comprises a short “kain tenun betating” (a woven cloth attached with coins and bells at the bottom end), a rattan or brass ring corset, selampai (long scarf) or marik empang (beaded top cover), sugu tinggi (high comb made of silver), simpai (bracelets on upper arms), tumpa (bracelets on lower arms) and buah pauh (fruits on hand).
The Dayaks especially Ibans appreciate and treasure very much the value of pua kumbu (woven or tied cloth) made by women while ceramic jars which they call tajau obtained by men. Pua kumbu has various motives for which some are considered sacred. Tajau has various types with respective monetary values. The jar is a sign of good fortune and wealth. It can also be used to pay fines if some adat is broken in lieu of money which is hard to have in the old days. Beside the jar being used to contain rice or water, it is also used in ritual ceremonies or festivals and given as baya (provision) to the dead.
The adat tebalu (widow or widower fee) for deceased women for Iban Dayaks will be paid according to her social standing and weaving skills and for the men according to his achievements in lifetime.
Dayaks being accustomed to living in jungles and hard terrains, and knowing the plants and animals are extremely good at following animals trails while hunting and of course tracking humans or enemies, thus some Dayaks became very good trackers in jungles in the military e.g. some Iban Dayaks were engaged as trackers during the anti-confrontation by Indonesia against the formation of Federation of Malaysia and anti-communism in Malaysia itself. No doubt, these survival skills are obtained while doing activities in the jungles, which are then utilized for headhunting in the old days.

Dayak People In The Present.
Today Dayak tribes are divided into six large clumps , namely : Apokayan ( Kenyah – Kayan – Bahau ) , Ot Danum – Ngaju , Iban , Murut , Klemantan and Punan . Clumps Dayak Dayak Punan is the oldest inhabited the island of Borneo , Dayak clumps while others are the result of assimilation between the clumps and Punan Dayak groups Proto Malay ( Dayak ancestors who came from Yunnan ) . Sixth clump was subdivided into approximately 405 sub – ethnic . Although divided into hundreds of sub – ethnic , all have in common Dayak ethnic cultural traits typical . These characteristics be the deciding factor whether a subsuku in Borneo can be incorporated into the Dayak groups or not . These characteristics are the length , the results of material culture such as pottery , saber , chopsticks , beliong ( ax Dayak ) , views on nature , livelihood ( farming system ) , and the art of dance . Ot Danum Dayak village clump – Ngaju usually called Lewu / dust and the other Dayak often referred banua / continent / binua / benuo . In sub-districts in Kalimantan, which is an area of ​​the Dayak Customary led by a Chief who led one or two different Dayak tribes .
Prof . Lambut from the University of Hull Mangkurat , ( Ngaju Dayak ) rejected the notion derived from the Dayak tribe of origin , but only the collective designation of various ethnic elements , according to him are ” racial ” , the Dayak people can be grouped into :
Dayak Mongoloid
Autrolo – Melanosoid
Dayak Heteronoid
However, in the international scientific world , terms like ” race Australoid ” , ” Mongoloid races and in general ” race ” is no longer considered meaningful for classify human beings because of the complex factors that make the existence of human groups.

Dayak in Military;
Two highly decorated Iban Dayak soldiers from Sarawak in Malaysia are Temenggung Datuk Kanang anak Langkau (awarded Seri Pahlawan Gagah Perkasa) and Awang Anak Rawing of Skrang (awarded a George Cross). So far, only one Dayak has reached the rank of a general in the military that is Brigadier-General Stephen Mundaw in the Malaysian Army, who was promoted on 1 November 2010.
Malaysia’s most decorated war hero is Kanang Anak Langkau due to his military services helping to liberate Malaya (and later Malaysia) from the communists. Among all the heroes were 21 holders of Panglima Gagah Berani (PGB) which is the bravery medal with 16 survivors. Of the total, there are 14 Ibans, two Chinese army officers, one Bidayuh, one Kayan and one Malay. But the majorities in the Armed Forces are Malays, according to a book – Crimson Tide over Borneo. The youngest of the PGB holder is ASP Wilfred Gomez of the Police Force.

There were six holders of Sri Pahlawan (SP) Gagah Perkasa (the Gallantry Award) from Sarawak, and with the death of Kanang Anak Langkau, there is one SP holder in the person of Sgt. Ngalinuh (an Orang Ulu).

Organised Dayak political representation in the Indonesian State first appeared during the Dutch administration, in the form of the Dayak Unity Party (Parti Persatuan Dayak) in the 30s and 40s. The feudal Sultanates of Kutai, Banjar and Pontianak figured prominently prior to the rise of the Dutch colonial rule.
Dayaks in Sarawak in this respect, compare very poorly with their organised brethren in the Indonesian side of Borneo, partly due to the personal fiefdom that was the Brooke Rajah dominion, and possibly to the pattern of their historical migrations from the Indonesian part to the then pristine Rajang Basin. Political circumstances aside, the Dayaks in the Indonesian side actively organised under various associations beginning with the Sarekat Dayak established in 1919, to the Parti Dayak in the 40s, and to the present day, where Dayaks occupy key positions in government.
In Sarawak, Dayak political activism had its roots in the SNAP (Sarawak National Party) and Pesaka during post-independence construction in the 1960s. These parties shaped to a certain extent Dayak politics in the State, although never enjoying the real privileges and benefits of Chief Ministerial power relative to its large electorate due to their own political disunity with some Dayaks joining various political parties instead of consolidating inside one single political party.
The first Sarawak chief minister was Datuk Stephen Kalong Ningkan who was removed as the chief minister in 1966 after court proceedings and amendments to both Sarawak state constitution and Malaysian federal constitution due to some disagreements with Malaya with regards to the 18-point Agreement as conditions for Malaysia Formation. Datuk Penghulu Tawi Sli was appointed as the second Sarawak chief minister who was a soft-spoken seat-warmer fellow and then replaced by Tuanku Abdul Rahman Ya’kub (a Melanau Muslim) as the third Sarawak chief minister in 1970 who in turn was succeeded by Abdul Taib Mahmud a (Melanau Muslim) in 1981 as fourth Sarawak chief minister.
Wave of Dayakism has surfaced at least twice among the Dayaks in Sarawak while they are on the opposition side of politics as follows:
SNAP won 18 seats (with 42.70% popular vote) out of total 48 seats in Sarawak state election, 1974 while the remaining 30 seats won by Sarawak National Front.
PBDS (Parti Bansa Dayak Sarawak), a breakaway of SNAP in Sarawak state election in 1987 won 15 seats while its partner Permas only won 5 seats. Overall, the Sarawak National Front won 28 constituencies with PBB 14; SUPP 11 and SNAP 3. In both cases, SNAP and PBDS (now both party are defunct) had joined the Malaysian National Front as the ruling coalition. Under Indonesia, Kalimantan is now divided into four self-autonomous provinces i.e. West, East, South and Middle Kalimantan.

Under Indonesia’s transmigration programme, settlers from densely populated Java and Madura were encouraged to settle in the Indonesian provinces of Borneo. The large scale transmigration projects initiated by the Dutch and continued following Indonesian independence, caused social strains.
During the killings of 1965-66 Dayaks killed up to 5,000 Chinese and forced survivors to flee to the coast and camps. Starvation killed thousands of Chinese children who were under eight years old. The Chinese refused to fight back, even though previously the Chinese had fought against the Dutch colonialist occupation of Indonesia, since they considered themselves “a guest on other people’s land” with the intention of trading only. 75,000 of the Chinese who survived were displaced, fleeing to camps where they were detained on coastal cities. The Dayak leaders were interested in cleansing the entire area of ethnic Chinese. In Pontianak, 25,000 Chinese living in dirty, filthy conditions were stranded. They had to take baths in mud. The massacres are considered a “dark chapter in recent Dayak history”.
In 2001 the Indonesian government ended the transmigration of Javanese settlement of Indonesian Borneo that began under Dutch rule in 1905.

From 1996 to 2003 there were violent attacks on Indonesian Madurese settlers, including executions of Madurese transmigrant communities. The violence included the Sampit conflict in 2001 in which more than 500 were killed in that year. Order was restored by the Indonesian Military.

Black Magic of Dayak;
1 . Boxing Nine Doors.. Your punch so strong.. one blow could be brutal..

2 . Heavy Earth spell.. Your body weight and finally made ​​your bones can not support the weight of your body, all the bones broken, and eventually die.

3 . Eggplant arrows.. kind of witchcraft as in Java , we sent in the evening , for anyone who got .. our bodies become purple as eggplant , within 3 days surely die if not treated quickly .

4 . Arrow Lombok .. Some kind of black magic as well .. if exposed to our body and we feel the spiciness of red .. we will continue to thirst but always spiciness .. your body will become weak over time and within a maximum period of 1 week is definitely dead .

5 . Fur Perindu .. a kind of supernatural stuff .. in use to conquer the opposite sex that we want … if there is a sale … definitely FAKE ! ! ! as in the non-tradable .. This is taken from the unseen world .

6 . Oil Star .. occult oil in use to heal bone fractures .. within a week the bone will definitely connected .. any severe fracture ..

7 . Pig Necklace .. magical items taken when we fight against the demon pigs who live in the interior of Borneo jungle . useful for the thugs because we would be immune jab , bullets and threats of any sharp objects . but we will be exposed to the side effects can be cured without phlegm .

8 . Saber Demon .. This he has most macho .. can make enemies wherever they are .. to decide the target enemy ‘s head.

9 . Balm Evil .. Balm in taro in objects that are often used by our target.. in less than 4 days would have died with the diagnosis of a heart attack ..

Funeral rites of the dayak.
If the indigenous people of Bali have the grand ngaben cremation ceremony and the Toraja have elaborate funeral traditions, the Dayak Maanyan sub ethnic group who inhabit the Warukin Village, in Tabalong Regency, South Kalimantan also have extraordinary rituals to send the soul to the afterlife at its passing away.
The Dayak Maanyan inhabit the area that stretches across the border between the provinces of Central Kalimantan and South Kalimantan. According to customs and way of life, the Dayak Maanyan are divided into three branches. They are the Banua Lima, Paju Ampat, and Paju sepuluh. The Dayak Maanyan of Warukin Village in South Kalimantan belong to the Banua Lima branch that has certain (although not principal) differences with the other branches.
Although much of this community has been converted to Islam or Christianity from their original faith of ‘Kaharingan’, nevertheless, funeral rites are one of the ancient rituals that continue to be practiced today. The Dayak Maanyan believe that every person who passes away returns to his and her “original” homeland of perfection (a similar concept to heaven or nirvana). To reach this ultimate afterlife, a series of rituals must be conducted by their descendants and living relatives to ensure that the spirit will find the way to this ultimate state. These series of rituals are in a way a process to cleanse the soul of the deceased from any faults or sins that may prevent it from entering heaven, a purification of the soul for the afterlife.

The stages and variety of the Dayak Maanyan funeral rites are as follows:
1. Ijambe: The burning of the bones of the deceased. The rituals take ten days and night and are highlighted with the sacrificial slaughter of bulls, pigs, and chicken. Due to its high cost, this ceremony is usually conducted by large families or generations of descendants for their ancestors.

2. Ngadatun: A funeral ceremony reserved especially for those who died in a non-natural way (killed in battle) or for renowned figures or prominent leaders of society. The ceremony takes 7 days and nights.

3. Miya: A ritual ceremony at erecting the tomb for the deceased (membatur) and decorating the grave. In this ritual, food, clothing and other necessities are symbolically sent to the spirit of the deceased.

4. Bontang: The highest and most illustrious form of showing respect towards the deceased by the living family. This ceremony lasts 5 days and nights, when tens of pigs, hundreds of chicken, and also buffaloes are sacrificed .The essence of the ceremony is to send wealth and prosperity to the spirit of the deceased. The ritual is not a ritual of grief, but is more a festive ceremony.

5. Nuang Panuk: A membatur ceremony is a level lower than Miya, since it is only conducted for one night.

6. Siwah: The continuation of Miya which is conducted 40 days after Miya. The ritual is intended to call the spirit back to the family as a “Pangantu Pangantuhu”, to become friends and guardians of the family.

During these rituals, there is a unique process where in sacrificing a buffalo, the animal must first be speared before it is finally slaughtered. The ritual of spearing the buffalo is believed to express that a person must make great efforts or do strenuous work before one expect to can gain something, in a way symbolizing the process of life itself.
Burial traditions and ceremonies of death in Dayak tribes is set firmly in customary law . Burial systems vary in line with the long history of human arrival in Borneo. Historically there are three burial culture in Borneo:
burial without a container and without supplies , with the frame folded position .
burial in a stone coffin ( dolmen )

burial with container wood , bamboo , or woven mats . This is the final burial system develops.